Before undergoing bariatric surgery, it’s essential to investigate a candidate’s mental health status. 

The PAI Bariatric compiles the results of the PAI into a convenient report targeted to your bariatric surgery candidates. The results allow you to evaluate psychological factors that, if left unattended, may negatively impact bariatric surgery outcomes. 

How does the PAI Bariatric work? 

The PAI Bariatric uses the PAI to assess symptoms of depression, anxiety, mania, psychosis, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, history of abuse, family history of mental health issues, and any adverse treatment experiences. It organizes PAI results into a convenient report focused on bariatric patients. The PAI Bariatric includes bariatric presurgical candidate norms—not just comparison group profiles—to provide users with the information needed to determine bariatric surgery eligibility in less than an hour. 

The report provides information to help you identify and treat preexisting psychopathology prior to surgery, determine which patients may need additional postoperative care, and provide alternative treatment strategies if the patient is not deemed a candidate for the procedure they are seeking. 

The PAI Bariatric e-Manual Supplement describes the domains of focus, the development of bariatric norms, and basic psychometric information. 

How to use the PAI Bariatric 

To assess your clients with the PAI Bariatric, use PARiConnect to administer the PAI either in your office or remotely. Using the PAI Bariatric Score Report to view results based on bariatric presurgical candidate normative data. The results of the report can be shared with other members of your client’s care team. 

The diagnostic possibilities featured in the PAI Clinical Interpretive Report are conveniently included in the PAI Bariatric Score Report. 

If you have already administered the PAI and have the responses, you do not need to readminister the PAI. You can simply run those scores with a PAI Bariatric Score report. 

What is the difference between the PAI Plus bariatric overlay and the PAI Bariatric Report? 

The PAI Bariatric Score Report includes information specifically for bariatric surgery patients, and results are based on bariatric surgery candidate norms. The PAI Bariatric Report includes bariatric reference group normative scores. It is based on a different sample than the PAI Plus bariatric overlay. A subsample (n = 931) of approved bariatric surgery candidates was derived from archival data collected during psychological evaluations at an outpatient health psychology clinic. Approved surgery candidates underwent bariatric surgery at a local medical center for weight loss surgery. Patients’ surgeries were considered successful if they had received follow-up care after surgery for at least 1 year and achieved 50 percent or more loss of excess body weight as recorded during the last follow-up appointment. 

Who can purchase the PAI Bariatric Score Report? 

The qualification level required to purchase, administer, and interpret the PAI Bariatric Score Report is C, which means you must have an advanced professional degree that provides appropriate training in the administration and interpretation of psychological tests or license or certification from an agency that requires appropriate training and experience in the ethical and competent use of psychological tests. A trained psychologist is needed to administer and evaluate the results of the PAI. 


Learn more about the importance of accurate bariatric assessment


Learn more about the PAI Bariatric.



On Valentine’s Day, people’s thoughts often turn to love. And whether you spend your day focusing on the hearts and flowers related to romantic love or the love from friends, family, or pets, both all of love can have an important influence on mental health. 

In honor of Valentine’s Day, we take this opportunity to point to a few interesting facts related to love and mental health. Love is important—not just on Valentine’s Day, but throughout the year. 

People who are happy with their marriages may feel less pain. According to a study of octogenarians, those who reported having happy marriages stated their mood didn’t suffer even on days they reported more physical pain. Alternately, those who said they were in unhappy marriages reported more physical and emotional pain. 

Having strong relationships may lead to a healthier and longer life. According to the Harvard Study of Adult Development, the longest longitudinal study of adult happiness, individuals who have warm and supportive connections tended to be the happiest and stayed healthiest as they aged. Quality relationships were the strongest predictor of which individuals would report being happy and healthy as they got older. The psychologists behind this study believe that people need to exercise social fitness just as you would physical fitness—by putting in regular work to strengthen relationships. 

Your brain may be responsible for any bad decisions you’ve made early in a relationship. Although your body will release feel-good chemicals like oxytocin and dopamine when you are in the early stages of a romantic relationship, your brain deactivates the neural pathway for emotions like fear and judgment. This essentially shuts down the ability to make critical assessments of people—which explains why people don’t always see their mate’s flaws until those initial intense feelings calm down. 

The majority of singles aren’t looking for romance. If you aren’t in a relationship and don’t want to be, you are not alone! According to a recent study from Pew Research, 56% of singles said they are not looking for a relationship. Near three-quarters of the group who is not looking to date say it is because they enjoy being single. Of those who are dating, nearly half report that their love life is a cause of stress, saying it is harder to date today than it was 10 years ago. 

There are neurobiological differences between romantic and parental love. Different areas of the brain are involved in parental versus romantic love. In romantic love, the hypothalamus is activated, which is responsible for testosterone and other hormones. Furthermore, part of the reward system that gets activated in romantic love comes from the knowledge that your love is being reciprocated by another person. This brain area is not as important in parental love—which explains why parents can love their babies even before they can smile back at them.





PAR is excited to see you next week in New Orleans for the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Annual Convention. Whether you will be attending online or in person, make sure you don’t miss these PAR authors and experts who will be presenting throughout the conference. 

Be sure to stop by the PAR booth to catch up with our staff, learn about what new ways we are trying to meet the needs of school psychologists like you, and use your conference discount! Be sure to check out these informative sessions:


Publisher sponsored special session: Trauma Assessment Using the Feifer Assessment of Childhood Trauma (FACT) 

Wednesday, February 14, 2024 

2–2:50 p.m. 

Steven G. Feifer, DEd


Using a Process Oriented Approach for Identifying and Remediating Dyslexia

Thursday, February 15, 2024 

8–9:50 a.m. 

Steven G. Feifer, DEd, and Jack A. Naglieri, PhD 


The Neuropsychology of Reading Disorders: Diagnosis and Intervention 

Friday, February 16, 2024 

2–3:50 p.m. 

Steven G. Feifer, DEd 


Wean From the Screen: Harm Reduction for Media Device Use 

Thursday, February 15, 2024 

8–9:50 a.m. 

Jessica L. Stewart, PsyD, Christy A. Mulligan, PsyD, Ray Christner, PsyD 


Advanced CBT: Conceptualization, Evidence-Based Practice, Pop Culture, Metaphor, and Improv 

Friday, February 16, 2024 

10–11:50 a.m. 

Ray W. Christner, PsyD 


Blueprint for Success: Navigating Entry Into the Test Publishing Industry 

Friday, February 16, 2024 

1–1:50 p.m. 

Carrie A. Champ Morera, PsyD, NCSP, LP, and Terri D. Sisson, EdS 


Stop by the PAR booth (#111) and meet Steven Feifer, PhD, author of the FAR, FAW, FAM, and FACT! (Thurs. & Fri., Feb. 15 & 16). You can also save 15% on any PAR product you order at the booth. Hope to see you there!


In honor of February being Black History Month, we take this opportunity to recognize and acknowledge the accomplishments Black Americans have made in the field of psychology. Far too often, these contributions have been overlooked. The following are several notable individuals who are responsible for historic contributions to the field. These individuals and their work deserves to be amplified in order to build a future based on equity, inclusion, and opportunity. 

Na'im Akbar (1944–present): A clinical psychologist, Akbar has written extensively on the psychological and cultural aspects of African American identity and mental health. He is an internationally known scholar, author, lecturer, researcher, and expert. He created the Black psychology program at Morehouse University, Norfolk State University, and Florida State University. 

Kenneth B. Clark (1914–2005) and Mamie Phipps Clark (1917–1983): This pioneering husband-and-wife team conducted influential research on the impact of racial segregation on children. Their famous “doll study” showed that Black children, when asked to choose a doll most like themselves, would disproportionately choose White dolls. This research was used in the Brown v. Board of Education case in 1954 and played a key role in exemplifying why racially separate schools were psychologically harmful and violated the 14th Amendment. 

John Hope Franklin (1915–2009): Franklin was primarily a historian, but his work on race relations and African American history contributed significantly to the understanding of the psychological impact of racism. President Bill Clinton awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1995. Franklin also served on President Clinton's Advisory Board for the President's Initiative on Race from 1997 to 1998. 

Alvin Poussaint (1934–present): A psychiatrist whose research emphasized the impact of racism, Poussaint is well-known as an advocate for racial equality. He contributed to research on race and mental health and has been involved in efforts to reduce racial disparities in healthcare. He served as a professor and dean of students at Harvard Medical School. 

Inez Beverly Prosser (unknown–1934): Prosser was the first Black woman to earn a PhD in psychology. She spent much of her short life focused on research concerning the impact of segregation on the educational achievement of Black children. She was instrumental in helping Black students obtain funding for college and graduate studies. 

Joseph L. White (1932–2017): White has been referred to as the “godfather of Black psychology” due to the significant contributions he made during his career. Much of his work focused on the importance of addressing the needs of minorities through multicultural counseling. 

These are just a few individuals who have played important roles in advancing the field of psychology and addressing issues related to race, identity, and social justice. Their work continues to influence and inspire new generations of psychologists.