The genre known as reality TV became popular in the early 2000s; however, it actually began in 1948 with Candid Camera. The Dating Game followed in 1965, That’s Incredible in 1980, and Cops in 1989. The 2000s gave us action reality shows like Survivor, Fear Factor, and The Amazing Race, and dating shows like The Bachelor and Who Wants to Marry a Multi-Millionaire. Talent competition shows later emerged, with shows like American Idol and Dancing With the Stars. Finally, an abundance of celebrity reality shows began, featuring people like Donald Trump, Tyra Banks, and the Kardashians. Psychologists Steven Reiss and James Wiltz conducted a study called “Why People Watch Reality TV.” They asked 239 adults to rate how much they watched and enjoyed reality shows. They also had participants rate themselves on 16 basic motivations, which influence what people pay attention to and what they choose to do. However, basic motivations must continually be satisfied: once a person has eaten, hunger re-emerges; a person who enjoys arguing might pick a fight after a few days of no conflict. This theory suggests that people continually watch reality shows that satisfy their most important needs. The study also revealed status as a primary motivation for watching reality TV. Reiss and Wiltz concluded, “The more status-oriented people are, the more likely they are to view reality television and report pleasure and enjoyment.” People watch reality shows for many reasons. Some are merely interested in the topic of the show; others enjoy getting a peek behind the scenes of a celebrity’s life. Reality shows answer questions such as: What is it like to participate in daring escapades? What is it like to win cash? What’s required to keep your home decluttered? How do you plan a wedding? What is it like to sing or dance in front of millions? Reality TV is also a way to escape the problems of life or fantasize about being famous. After all, the people on these shows often seem like normal, down to earth people. If they can be in the spotlight, if they can be rich, maybe someday we can be as well. Although watching reality TV can be highly entertaining, an article on NPR.org cautions that watching such shows can impact real-life behavior. The constant intake of drama and negativity might not be healthy for viewers. Psychologist Bryan Gibson concluded that watching shows with high aggression can make people more aggressive in their real lives. This may be a good reason to avoid or at least limit watching shows with high levels of negative drama and violence. What do you think about the effects of reality TV? PAR wants to hear from you, so leave your comments below.  
You may know that PAR prides itself on providing the best Customer Service in the industry, but you may not know that this goes far beyond simply providing support when ordering! PAR’s Customer Support team prides themselves on going above and beyond. Every now and then, however, they truly outdo themselves. Here are a few examples of just how incredible our Customer Support team can be—and how seriously they take Customer satisfaction! Here are two recent stories from our Customer Support team. Baby on board Earlier this fall, a Customer called in with a question. During the conversation, she mentioned she was extremely pregnant. The Customer Support Specialist who took the call included a PAR bodysuit for the baby in the Customer’s package! Brazil and beyond At a recent convention, a Customer from Brazil came to the booth, hoping to take a copy of the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children kit home with him. Because the Customer was concerned with the customs process and the cost of shipping to Brazil, the PAR representative was able to call the order in to our office and have the kit sent overnight to the hotel where the conference was being held. The Customer was able to pick up the kit and take it home with him to Brazil! Have you experienced our top-notch Customer Service yourself? Share your story with us in the comments.
raitnv_fullFrom the author of the Reynolds Adaptable Intelligence Test (RAIT), the RAIT-Nonverbal (RAIT-NV) can help you quickly evaluate nonverbal, or fluid, intelligence. Ideal for administration with individuals with limited or no language skills, the RAIT-NV reduces confounds found in other nonverbal intelligence measures. The RAIT-NV:
  • Can be administered individually or in group format. May be used in human resource and related industrial settings, schools, juvenile and adult justice systems, and clinical practices, especially where nonverbal reasoning skills are a premium.
  • Is designed to provide continuity across wide age span.
  • Was examined rigorously to be free of gender and ethnic bias, reducing gender and ethnicity as confounds, particularly important for use with English as a Second Language (ESL) students and adults.
  Learn more about the RAIT-NV today!
igt2_fullThe Iowa Gambling Task™, Version 2 (IGT™2) is a computerized assessment that assists in the evaluation of decision making. The IGT2 is ideal for assessing patients who exhibit poor decision-making skills in the presence of otherwise normal or unaffected intelligence because of head injury or insult or any other condition thought to impact the function of the prefrontal cortex. This updated edition features a downward age extension that makes the IGT2 usable throughout the life span, from ages 8 to 79 years. The IGT2 is:
  • Administered on a computer. The program generates a Score Report and T-score and raw score profiles as soon as the examinee has completed the task. Two export formats are available.
  • Customized to your needs. Optional settings can be customized to your needs, including number of trials, intertrial intervals, type of currency, and starting amount of money.
  • Interpreted immediately. Normative scores are produced automatically, allowing the examiner to compare scores to those of a demographically corrected or U.S. Census-matched sample.
Now featuring extended normative data!
TOGRAYou may know that the Test of General Reasoning Ability™ (TOGRA™) is a speeded measure of reasoning ability and problem-solving skills. Here are five things you may not know.
  1. The TOGRA is fast—it requires only 16 minutes to administer and 2-3 minutes to score.
  2. The TOGRA gives you flexibility. It can be administered by paper and pencil or via PARiConnect, our online assessment platform; in addition, it can be administered to individuals or groups.
  3. The TOGRA includes two equivalent alternate forms, enabling you to retest and monitor progress without worrying about practice effects.
  4. The TOGRA yields a General Reasoning Index (GRI), a highly reliable score that reflects overall measurement of the general factor of reasoning and problem-solving skill.
  5. The TOGRA offers you support, with training available 24/7 on the PAR Training Portal and a Fast Guide that helps you start administering assessments right away.
Learn more about the TOGRA!
You may think that the only people who were stressed out about the election were those who voted. However, according to new research, people who didn’t vote face a unique form of stress. According to Fast Company’s Kelsey Campbell-Dollaghan, many people vote for an unexpressed reason: they are afraid others will judge them if they don’t. People proudly display their “I voted” stickers as a subliminal implication that they “did the right thing” by exercising their civic responsibility. According to this study, many people feel pressured to lie about whether they voted. Those who didn’t vote may fear being asked whether they voted and may fear the reaction of their peers when they admit they didn’t. Additionally, a Harvard study indicates people may vote to avoid lying or to avoid feeling left out. What do you think? Have you experienced or witnessed voting-related stress?
DBR Connect is an online direct behavior rating tool that helps educators, school psychologists, and school-based intervention teams assess at-risk students, rate student behavior and track success, and monitor student behavior over time. It can help identify problem behaviors and triggers and determine response to intervention (RTI) effectiveness in minutes. Here are five things you should know about DBR Connect: DBR Connect is easy – built-in sliders allow for simple, straightforward administration, and teachers or other professionals can assess student behavior online in about one minute per student. DBR Connect is comprehensive—research has shown that the three core behavioral constructs in DBR Connect (Academically Engaged, Disruptive, and Respectful) are the most indicative of student success in the classroom. DBR Connect is effective—according to the National Center on Intensive Intervention, DBR Connect is one of only two behavioral progress monitoring tools proven to be sensitive to student change. DBR Connect is convenient—the online system completely eliminates paperwork and filing, although forms can be printed and data added to the system later, if desired. At the end of an observation period, a click of a button is all it takes to review data and generate reports. DBR Connect is reliable—the system offers the strengths of both traditional rating scales and systematic direct observation.  This means teachers can not only identify specific behaviors in real time—and perhaps at the same time every day, such as in homeroom or during bell work—but they can also rate those behaviors. Learn more about DBR Connect today!
You may know that the Reynolds Adaptable Intelligence Test™ (RAIT™) is a rapid, reliable, and valid intelligence test. Here are five things you may not know.
  1. The RAIT is composed of seven subtests that assess crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence, and quantitative aptitude or intelligence.
  2. The RAIT is flexible. The test can be administered by paper and pencil or via PARiConnect, our online assessment platform. The digital version allows you to administer the full battery (i.e., all seven subtests) or an abbreviated battery (i.e., crystallized and fluid subtests only). Because print and digital versions are statistically equivalent, you can confidently assess groups or individuals.
  3. This flexibility makes the RAIT a viable option for use in schools, juvenile and adult justice systems, clinical settings, and human resource and related industrial settings.
  4. The RAIT provides multiple types of scores, including z scores, normal curve equivalents, stanines, percentiles, and, for the younger ages, age equivalents.
  5. The soon-to-be-released Reynold Adaptable Intelligence Test™–Nonverbal (RAIT™-NV) was created from the RAIT to be a rapid, reliable, and valid power test of nonverbal intelligence.
For more information on the RAIT or RAIT-NV, visit their individual product pages.
You may know the Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree™ (EDDT™) family recently welcomed a new member—the EDDT–Self-Report Form (EDDT-SR). Here are five things you may not know about this trio of assessment tools.
  1. The EDDT is the first instrument of its kind to provide a standardized approach to the assessment of emotional disturbance (ED). The EDDT encompasses all the federal criteria and addresses the broad emotional and behavioral nuances of children who may require special education services for ED.
  2. The EDDT–Parent Form (EDDT-PF) and EDDT-SR are available in Spanish, facilitating use with Hispanic/Latino clients.
  3. Multi-Rater Summary Forms can be used with all three forms to review responses from multiple raters over time to create a well-rounded picture of an individual's functioning.
  4. The EDDT-SR Professional Manual offers additional analysis and scores that have been developed for all three EDDT versions including base rates for discrepancies between raters and reliable change scores.
  5. The EDDT, EDDT-PF, and EDDT-SR are all Likert-style response forms that can be completed in less than 20 minutes each, making them easy to administer and time efficient.
For more information on the EDDT, EDDT-PF, and EDDT-SR, visit their individual product pages.
Did you know that PAR offers many of our manuals in a convenient e-Manual format? No need to carry hard copies of professional manuals with you—you can simply download select manuals to your computer or laptop, where you'll be able to easily search for exactly the information you need. Here are a few questions about e-Manuals answered! Q: Can I view e-Manuals on an e-reader or a tablet? A: e-Manuals from PAR can be downloaded and viewed on the iPad and on select Android tablets. PAR has tested and successfully downloaded e-Manuals on the iPad, iPad2, Motorola Xoom, and the Samsung Galaxy. Use of e-Manuals on these tablets requires you to download the free Bluefire Reader app onto your device. It may be possible to use on other Android tablets, but PAR is unable to guarantee compatibility and will only be able to provide limited support. Q: How many times can I download an e-Manual? A: Each e-Manual you purchase is licensed for one user. We provide two download links per purchase. The second download link serves as a backup should you experience computer problems, replace your computer, or otherwise lose your original copy. Q: Is the e-Manual identical to the printed manual? A: Yes, all the information contained in the printed manual, including tables and graphs, is included in the digital version.   More questions about PAR’s e-Manuals? Visit our FAQ. Want to see our e-Manual selection? Click here or visit the product page for your favorite product.